The following is brief review of a literature review published in the British Medical Bulletin in 2006 (1). A literature review is a paper that reviews a great number of published studies on a specific topic. This review looked at published articles dealing with the topic of Parkinson’s and pesticide exposure. The review concluded that many studies have shown an association between pesticides and Parkinson’s disease, however; no one pesticide as been consistently identified. The pesticides that have shown a correlation include organochlorine insecticides, maneb and paraquat. (more on these pesticides and where they are used later). One reviewed study showed an almost doubling of risk in individuals exposed to Pesticides! The researcher also notes that it is difficult to single out a specific pesticide because individuals who are exposed are often exposed to several. The current body of evidence indicates that pesticides are associated with Parkinson’s disease, but, as of 2006, more research is needed to improve techniques for estimating specific pesticide exposure.
The next steps in this blog series are to, 1 identify where the previously mentioned pesticides are used, 2 look at studies identifying additional pesticides, and 3 look at studies that have researched specific pesticide effects on animal neurons.
Also – Parkinson’s disease anatomy fact #2 ( the first was the substantia nigra); The basal ganglia is the portion of the brain that contains the substantia nigra. The basal ganglia is interconnected with the cerebral cortext, thalamus, and brainstem. The substantia nigra is Latin for “black substance.”
Substantia nigra also plays a role in addictive behaviors because some drugs, such as cocaine, prevent the reuptake of dopamine, effectively increasing the amount of dopamine in the brain. However, the addiction has more to do with the mesolimbic pathway then the substantia nigra, which is part of a different dopamine pathway.
Disclaimer: I am currently in the process of researching this issue – so there is definitely a chance I may post corrections in the future!!!! But am doing my very best to report accurate and concise information.
1. Dick FD, Br Med Bull. 2006;79-80:219-31. Epub 2007 Jan 22.